Migration is the one of the major issue in every country. If you want to know the meaning and reason behind migration then you are in right place. In this article we will talk about migration and its impact.
What is Migration?
First we should know exact meaning of migration. Migration means a group of people or animal move from one place to another place. It could be permanent or temporary, and may be forced. Not only human migrates, animals or birds migrate too. In recent year India’s migration rate has been very high. Government has been launched different schemes to stop migration, but still migration is rises because these schemes are not fulfilling human desire. People move to different place to meet or complete their desires.
What is National Migration?
According to Census of India, after independence 98.3M people migrate during 1991 to 2001. It was the highest number of migration after independent increased by 22%. Marriage and Employment is the biggest reason behind the women migration. 12 Million Of men migrates from one place to another place to search for jobs, and it has increased 45% over the last decades. Over 9 Million people are intra-state migration, often from one district to another district and 5 million went to other state. About 5.7 Million people moved to urban area from rural area to search job or work.
What is International Migration?
During Industrial Revolution Period (1843-1939), many people migrate to USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Argentina and New Zealand from Europe. The reason behind it was crop failure and poverty in Europe. According to Union Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the growth of International Migration is very high: In year 2000, 173 Million people migrated, after 10 years in 2010, 220 Million people migrated, and till year 2017 250 Million people migrate. International migration rise in recent year. UN study report says that 60% of international migration lives in Asia and Europe which is around 80 Million and 78 Million. The third largest International migrates country is Northern America (58 Million). And then 25 Million people migrate to Africa.
What is reason behind Migration?
People migrate for many reasons. It could be social, economic, and political reason. 10 Major reasons behind the migration are listed below:
• People can leave an area because of lack of services like electricity or water, safety.
• They can move due to the crop failure, drought, and flood.
• High crime, poverty, and war could be a reason.
• People attracts towards the new technology, so they move.
• Education is a major factor of migration. Mostly people go to aboard for higher study.
• Marriage is another major factor. Often women have to migrate after marriage.
• Job search is also a reason behind migration.
• People also attract toward better lifestyle and more wealth.
• Good climate and low risk from nature hazard.
• Better services like healthcare, low crime, and safer also attract people.
What are the impacts of Migration?
Migration has a positive as well as negative impact in life. Job opportunities and attraction of big cities attracts people towards there.
Positive impact of Migration:
• Reduce unemployment and give a more job opportunities.
• It helps to improve the lifestyle.
• Students could get good opportunities for higher study.
• Companies get highly skilled labour, it helps to increase their economy growth.
• It helps to increase culture diversity.
Negative impact of Migration:
• It is a main reason behind brain-drain. Highly skilled people serve in different countries, instead of serving in their own country.
• Large number of population effect nature environment and resources.
• This is a reason of family breakup and increases the nuclear families.
• Also effect the economic development of country.
• Increase the competition in jobs, school and houses etc.
How we can control migration?
• First and foremost government should focus on education policy. They should provide good and high facilities to students.
• Another focus should be on Employment, attractive salary and large number of jobs should be first priority.
• Government should focus on electricity and water services in rural area.
• Tourism should be encouraged.
• Focus on crime and safety for both men and women.
• Should control pollution and population.